Processing Technology Analysis of box parts, Nanjing Precision Engineering Co., ltd
This paper analyzes the processing technology of box parts from three aspects: the formulation of the process route, the selection of the positioning benchmark and the processing of the main surface, puts forward the advanced hole finishing process scheme and points out: the machining accuracy of the important hole system of box parts becomes the key to the machining process of box parts. 【Keywords]Process route formulation; Positioning benchmark selection; Box plane processing; Internal stress;
Hole series processing box parts are typical parts of mechanical parts, such as lathe headstock, gear transmission box, gear box, etc. They are one of the basic parts of the machine, it keeps the shafts, bearings, sleeves, gears and other parts of the machine and its components in correct mutual positions, and makes them move harmoniously with each other according to the transmission relationship designed in advance, combine into a whole.
The assembled box body parts and the design reference plane of the box body are installed on the machine, therefore, the processing quality of the box not only affects its assembly accuracy and motion accuracy, but also has a decisive influence on the working accuracy, service performance and service life of the machine.
First, the design of the process route requires a lot of machined surfaces, such as the lathe head box, gear drive box, etc. In these machined surfaces, the machining accuracy of the plane is easier to guarantee than that of the hole, so the spindle hole in the box (Main hole)
The machining accuracy of the hole system has become a key issue in the process. Therefore, I prefer to pay attention to several points in the arrangement of the process route. (1)
The processing sequence of the first face and the second hole is to process the plane first, which not only removes the convexity and concavity of the blank surface and the sand inclusion on the surface, but also, more importantly, when processing the holes distributed on the plane, line, find the square is convenient, and when the boring tool starts boring, it will not cause impact vibration and damage to the tool due to uneven end face. Therefore, it is generally best to process the plane first. (2)
In the stages of rough and finish machining, the structure of the box body is complicated, and the precision of the main surface is required to be high. The cutting force, clamping force and cutting heat generated during rough machining have a great influence on the machining precision, if finishing is carried out immediately after rough machining, the internal stress of workpiece deformation caused by various reasons after rough machining is not fully released and cannot be eliminated during finishing, as a result, the box body is deformed after processing and unloading, which affects the final accuracy of the box body. I think it is best to loosen the fixture several times during rough machining so as to release the internal stress as much as possible in time, to ensure the processing quality of the box to a greater extent. (3)
The concentration or dispersion of working procedures determines that the separation of the coarse and fine processing stages of the box body conforms to the principle of process dispersion, but in the medium and small batch production, in order to reduce the number of machine tools and fixtures used, as well as reducing the handling and installation times of the box body, the rough and finish precision machining stages can be relatively concentrated and placed on the same machine tool as much as possible. (4)
Arrange appropriate heat treatment process the structure of the casting box is complex, the wall thickness is uneven, the cooling speed during casting is inconsistent, internal stress is easy to occur, and the surface is hard. Therefore, sand blasting and quenching and tempering should be reasonably arranged after casting.
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