What are the composition and working steps of CNC machine tools? , Nanjing Precision Engineering Co., ltd
What is the composition of CNC machine tools? What are its working steps?
For those who use numerical control machine tools, these are all necessary to understand and master, and they are also the most basic. Only when they master them can they correctly use numerical control machine tools, and there will be no problems such as improper operation, the following is an introduction to these two aspects of knowledge. 1.
The composition of the numerical control machine tool the numerical control machine tool consists of program, input/output device, CNC unit, servo system, position feedback system and machine tool body. The following is a brief introduction. (1)
CNC unit CNC unit is the core of CNC machine tools. CNC unit consists of three parts: information input, processing and output.
The CNC unit receives digital information, and after decoding, interpolation and logic processing by the control software and logic circuit of the numerical control device, it outputs various instruction information to the servo system, the servo system drives the executing parts for feed motion.
Others include the speed change, commutation and start-stop signals of the main moving parts;
Select and exchange the tool instruction signals of the tool, cooling, start and stop of lubrication, loosening of workpieces and machine tool components, clamping, indexing table indexing and other auxiliary instruction signals, etc. (2)
The servo system consists of a driver and a drive motor, and forms the feed system of the numerical control machine tool with the executive parts and mechanical transmission parts on the machine tool.
Its function is to convert the pulse signal from the numerical control device into the movement of the moving parts of the machine tool.
For stepping motors, each pulse signal makes the motor turn over an angle, thus driving the moving parts of the machine tool to move a small distance.
Each executing part of the feed motion has a corresponding servo drive system, and the performance of the whole machine tool mainly depends on the servo system. (3)
Position feedback system feedback of corner displacement of servo motor, numerical control machine tool actuator (Workbench)Displacement feedback.
Including grating, rotary encoder, laser rangefinder, magnetic grid, etc.
The feedback device converts the detection result into an electrical signal and feeds it back to the numerical control device. Through comparison, the deviation between the actual position and the command position is calculated, and a deviation command is issued to control the feed movement of the executing part. (4)
Mechanical parts of machine tools for CNC machine tools of machining center type, there are also parts such as tool magazine for storing cutting tools and manipulator for exchanging cutting tools. The composition of mechanical parts of CNC machine tools is similar to that of ordinary machine tools, however, the transmission structure requires simpler, higher precision, rigidity, shock resistance and other aspects, and its transmission and speed change system is more convenient to realize automatic expansion. 2.
The working steps of the numerical control machine tool are as follows :(1)
In the preparation stage, relevant processing data (
Tool Path coordinate point, machining cutting parameters, tool size information, etc)
According to the process plan, the selected fixture, the type of tool, etc. , other auxiliary information is selected. (2)
In the programming stage, according to the processing technology information, the numerical control processing program is written in a language recognized by the numerical control system of the machine tool (Description of processing process)And fill in the program form. (3)
Prepare the information carrier according to the compiled program list, store the program in the information carrier (Perforated tape, tape, disk, etc)
In fact, all processing information is transmitted to the numerical control system through information carriers.
If the numerical control machining machine tool is connected to the computer, the information can be directly loaded into the numerical control system. (4)
In the processing stage, when the program is executed, the numerical control system of the machine tool will decode and calculate the processing program statements and convert them into action instructions to drive various moving parts, in the unified coordination of the system, the timely movement of the moving parts is driven to automatically complete the processing of the workpiece.
In general, the CNC machine tool is to compile the information related to the processing parts into a processing program list in a certain format with a code composed of specified words, numbers and symbols, the processing program is input into the numerical control device through the control medium, and after the numerical control device is analyzed and processed, various signals and instructions corresponding to the processing program are sent out to control the machine tool to carry out automatic processing.
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